Question #1: Who was the first terpene scientist to refute “vital force” theory?
ANSWER: Friedrich Wohler
Question #2: Which German organic chemist named isoprene molecules “terpenes?”
ANSWER: Friedrich August Kekule
Question #3: Who advanced the theory that all aromatic compounds feature a hexagonal ring?
ANSWER: Friedrich August Kekule
Question #4: Who studied the aroma of fresh soil?
ANSWER: Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot
Question #5: Which famous botanist first implied synergy in cannabis, stating: “…the active principle of gánjá is not a simple substance, but consists of at least two distinct things.”?
ANSWER: David Prain
Question #6: After studying under Otto Wallach, which German chemist went on to write “The Chemistry of the Terpenes,” where he proposed that terpene oxidation products should be classified as terpenes?
ANSWER: Friedrich Huesler
Question #7: Which German pharmacologist developed a method of measuring synergy among chemical constituents called isobologram analysis?
ANSWER: Walter Loewe
Question #8: Which Israeli scientist discovered delta-9-THC, the endocannabinoid system, and coined the term “entourage effect?”
ANSWER: Raphael Mechoulam
Question #9: Which researcher is known for their work on the synergy between THC and CBD?
ANSWER: Ethan Russo
Question #1: Name 3 ways that plants use terpenes:
____________________________, _____________________________, ______________________________
Question #2: Terpenes are based on interlinked chains of what compound?
ANSWER: 2-methylbutane or Isoprene
Question #3: Terpene molecules are arranged:
ANSWER: C – Head-to-tail
Question #4: The chemical formula for monoterpenes is:
ANSWER: B – C10H16
Question #5: The chemical formula for sesquiterpenes is:
ANSWER: A – C15H24
Question #6: Bicyclic monoterpene molecules are defined by what key feature:
ANSWER: 2 Rings
Question #7: What changes a terpene to a terpenoid?
ANSWER: Addition of an oxygen molecule
Question #8: Describe how humans perceive terpenes:
ANSWER: Aromatic molecules must match cavities in olfactory receptors
Question #1: Flavonoids serve what primary biological role in plants:
ANSWER: D – Attract pollinators with colors
a. Attract pollinators by flavor or taste
b. Defend against predators with “warning” colors
c. Deter herbivores with bitter flavorings
d. Attract pollinators with colors
Question #2: Name 3 ways that plants use flavonoids:
_____________, ______________, _______________
Question #3: How many variations of flavonoids have been discovered as of 2018?
ANSWER: D – 5,000
Question #4: The basic flavonoid molecule contains how many rings?
ANSWER: B – 3
Question #5: Name the 3 flavonoids that (as of 2021) have only been found in cannabis:
ANSWER: Cannflavin A, B, and C
____________, ____________, _____________
Question #1: Name 2 plants other than cannabis that produce cannabinoids:
ANSWER: Toothache plant, black truffles, cacao, helichrysum italicum, Radula marginate, rhododendron
Question #2: Cannabinoids are formed from which 2 compounds:
ANSWER: A – Geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid
a. Geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid
b. Geranyl pyrane acid and oliveoil fraction
c. Geranyl acetate and ollitol
d. Geranyl acid and perrotentinenic acid
Question #3: What is the base compound in the production of nearly all cannabinoids?
ANSWER: E – CBGA
Question #4: Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol is a/an _____________________ of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol:
ANSWER: D – Isomer
Question #5: What are the 3 parts of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)?
ANSWER: Endocannabinoids, Endocannabinoid Receptors, and Enzymes
__________________, __________________, __________________
Question #6: What is the difference between endogenous cannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids?
ANSWER: Endogenous are made within the body, exogenous are made by plants or synthetically
Question #7: What is the function of enzymes in the ECS?
ANSWER: To breakdown endocannabinoids
Question #8: Name 3 medical conditions that could be treated using cannabinoid-based medicine:
ANSWER: Cancer, Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Crohn’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, Anorexia, Irritable bowel syndrome, PTSD, Anxiolytic disorders, Addiction, Inflammation, Peripheral neuropathy, Ocular diseases, Nausea and vomiting, Neurological conditions, HIV / AIDS, Glaucoma, Arthritis, Migraine, Tourette syndrome
___________________________, ___________________________, ______________________
Question #1: Match the term with the correct loose definition:
ANSWER: a-4, b-1, c-2, d-3
a. Synergy 1. One compound affecting multiple targets
b. Polypharmacology 2. A nonsensical term
c. Sinergistic bonding 3. Inactive compounds supporting active ECS compounds
d. Entourage Effect 4. 2 or more compounds with active synergy
Question #2: Geraniol, beta-pinene, alpha-humulene, and linalool have been shown to be:
ANSWER: D – Cannabimimetic
Question #3: Synergy characters can include:
ANSWER: F – All of the above
a. Terpenes and flavonoids
b. Terpenes and cananbinoids
c. Terpenoids, flavones, and anticancer agents
d. Antibacterial agents, terpenoids, and cannabinoids
e. Flavonols, analgesics, terpenes, and benzodiazepines
f. All of the above
Question #4: Name the endogenous ligan that led Ben-Shabat and Mechoulam to coin the term ‘entourage effect’:
ANSWER: A – 2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol
b. 2-Delta-arachidonoyl glycol
Question #5: Overall, cannabis consumers prefer whole plant products versus pure THC:
ANSWER: A – True
Question #6: While Russo, McPartland, and Mechoulam are in favor of the existence of synergy, these 3 scientists are against the concept:
ANSWER: Cogan, Duggan, Santiago
a. Fairborn, Childs, McDonald
b. Wendy, Rose, McLintock
c. Burger, Sorensen, Dumname
d. Cogan, Duggan, Santiago
Question #7: Name one obvious example of synergy in cannabis:
ANSWER: The bouquet, aroma, and/or flavor of volatile molecules (terpenes)